Other: English hawthorn, one-seed hawthorn
Crataegus monogyna Jacq.
Plant Family: Rosaceae
Hawthorn leaf, flower, and berry have been praised over the centuries for their heart elevating properties. Believed to uplift and strengthen both the physical and emotional heart, hawthorn, as it supports healthy cardiovascular function, was also revered for ceremonial and spiritual purposes. The flavorful red berries have been used in candies, jams, jellies, wines, and cordials and are widely available in many forms as dietary supplements.
Crataegus is a thorny shrub or tree with stems and trunks that consist of hard wood and gray bark, often having tri-lobed leaves and white flowers that are similar to other genera in the Rosaceae or Rose family and bearing bright red berries.4 There are around 280 known species,5 several of which are used in traditional medicine and may be used interchangeably. Generally C. laevigata (synonym C. oxyacantha) and C. monogyna are found in commerce.2 In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), C. pinnatifida is used.3 Crataegus oxyacantha is derived from the Greek 'kratos', meaning hardness and referring to the wood, 'oxcus' which means 'sharp', and 'akantha' which is a thorn.1 In several countries in Europe, in particularly Germany, the hawthorn was used as a hedgerow, 'haw' being an older term for 'hedge.' This shrub was also referred to as 'whitethorn' due to its light bark.1 C. mongyna or English hawthorn is native to the northern temperate forests of Europe and has become widely naturalized in the United States.2
Cultivation And Harvesting
Most hawthorn that is cultivated for commercial purposes is obtained from the United Kingdom and other countries such as Albania, Bulgaria, Romania, the former Yugoslavia, and Poland.2 Collect the flowering branches in the spring as all parts (leaves, twigs, spines, flowers) may be used for fresh tincturing. Or if drying, discard stems and spines. The berries are best harvested in the fall when they are fully ripe, and before the first frost.6
History And Folklore
Hawthorn has been used for healing since the Middle ages,7 with some accounts going back as far as the first century to Greek herbalist Dioscorides.2 It was later used by Swiss physician Paracelsus (1493–1541 CE).2 Considered to be a particularly symbolic tree with many folktales and magical myths surrounding it,7 hawthorn was "sacred tree medicine" to the ancient Druids, and was said to house fairies, specifically when growing with oak and ash trees.8 However, it was unlucky to bring the flowers into the house, quite possibly because they would bring the fairy folk with them.8 Hawthorn twigs and flowers were incorporated in the marriage wreath symbolizing chastity and insuring prosperity at Greek weddings and were also used to decorate alters worshipping the goddess of marriage, Hymen.7,8 In Ireland, couples desiring hawthorn's blessing would dance around it at marriage ceremonies.8 The sprigs were attached to newborn's cradles to protect them from evil7 and also used to decorate the maypole for the May Day or Beltane ceremony, which celebrated fertility and renewal. The blooming of this tree coincided with the first day of summer which occurred in May.7,8 In the traditional medicine of Europe all parts of the tree were appreciated and utilized: leaves, berries, flowers, and the wood. The blossoms were used as a heart tonic and a diuretic, and the berries and leaves were made into an astringent tea to soothe throats.1 The bright red sumptuous berries were also made into a tasty brandy cordial. Additionally, the wood was carved into smaller objects such as boxes and combs and burnt as fuel producing wood fires that were extremely hot.1 Hawthorn or 'shanzha' has been used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) since ancient times, however most historical uses were related to digestion until recently.3 It is considered energetically slightly warm, associated with the spleen, stomach, and liver meridians, and reflects both sweet and sour tastes.9 Presently, it is used to support the cardiovascular system as well, and in fact, in China, the berries are so popular that they are made into hawthorn candies that are similar to the 'fruit roll-ups' in the West.3 Hawthorn is considered a superior heart tonic by many herbalists6,10 having a gentle restorative effect on the heart over time and being supportive in cases where there is nervous tension.4,6 However, its effects on the heart are manifold. Many consider hawthorn to be transformational for the emotional or spiritual heart as well.7,11 Herbalist Matthew Becker suggests that hawthorn is specifically helpful for woman with "broken hearts" i.e. for those " feeling wounded and hurt."11 Often the flowers and leaves are made into floral essences to address these types of emotional issues.7,11
Flavor Notes And Energetics
Slightly warm energetically, being both sweet and sour in taste.9
cardiac,1,4,6,7,10 diuretic,1,10 tonic,1 sedative, vasodilator4 astringent, hypotensive, cardioprotective
Uses And Preparations
Dried leaf and flower as a tea or capsule; fresh or dried as a tincture. Dried berry as a tincture, tea, or encapsulated; can also be made into smoothies, punches, cordials or even made into a fresh juice.
flavonoids (flavones, flavonols) including hyperoside, vitexinrhamnose, rutin, vitexin oligomeric procyanidins,12 quercitin and others5, pentacyclic triterpenes (such as oleanic acid, ursolic acid, an crataegolic acid), xanthine derivatives (such as adenosine, adenine, guanine and uric acid) amines including acetylcholine and choline, proanthocyanidins, chlorogenic and caffeic acids, vitamins B1, B2, and C, minerals such as calcium, iron, phosphorus, fructose, and others.5
Specific: No known precautions.
General: We recommend that you consult with a qualified healthcare practitioner before using herbal products, particularly if you are pregnant, nursing, or on any medications.
- Grieve M. A Modern Herbal. New York: Dover Publications, Inc. Accessed at http://botanical.com/botanical on October 15, 2014.
- Blumenthal M, Goldberg A, Brinckmann J, eds. Herbal Medicine: Expanded Commission E Monographs. Austin, TX: American Botanical Council; Newton, MA: Integrative Medicine Communications; 2000.
- Dharmananda S., Hawthorn Institute for Traditional Medicine, Portland, Oregon. Accessed at: http://www.itmonline.org/arts/crataegus.htm on November 11, 2014.
- Lust, J. (2014). The Herb Book: The Most Complete Catalog of Herbs Ever Published. Courier Dover Publications.
- Khan, I. A., & Abourashed, E. A. (2011). Leung's encyclopedia of common natural ingredients: used in food, drugs and cosmetics. John Wiley & Sons.
- Moore M. Medicinal Plants of the Pacific West. Santa Fe. New Mexico: Red Crane Books; 1993.
- McIntyre, A. (1996). Flower Power: Flower Remedies for Healing Body and Soul Through Herbalism, Homeopathy, Aromatherapy, and Flower Essences. Henry Holt and Company.
- Hopman, E. E. (2008). A Druid's Herbal of Sacred Tree Medicine. Inner Traditions/Bear & Co.
- TCM Wiki. Traditional Chinese Medicine website. Accessed at: http://www.tcmwiki.com/wiki/shan-zha on November 11, 2014.
- Green, J. (2011). The Herbal Medicine-Maker's Handbook: A Home Manual. Random House LLC.
- Becker M. Materia Medica Intensive Seminar. Boulder, CO: North American Institute of Medical Herbalism, Inc; 2005.
- Blumenthal M, Busse WR, Goldberg A, Gruenwald J, Hall T, Riggins CW, Rister RS, eds. Klein S, Rister RS, trans. The Complete German Commission E MonographsTherapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines. Austin, TX: American Botanical Council; Boston: Integrative Medicine Communication; 1998.
For educational purposes only This information has not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration.
This information is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.